Extended Faculty Publications

Selected articles by DUWC Extended Research Faculty and their labs


Rocca, J.D., M. Simonin, E.S. Bernhardt, A. Washburne, and J.P. Wright. 2020Rare microbial taxa emerge when communities collide: Freshwater and marine microbiome responses to experimental mixing. Ecology 101(3):e02956

Yousefi Lalimi, F., M. Marani, J.B. Heffernan, A. D’Alpaos, A.B. Murray. 2020. Watershed and ocean controls of salt marsh extent and resilience. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4817


Blaszczak, J.R., J.M. Delesantro, D.L. Urban, M.W. Doyle, and E.S. Bernhardt. 2019. Scoured or suffocated: Urban stream ecosystems oscillate between hydrologic and dissolved oxygen extremes. Limnology and Oceanography 64(3):877-894. https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.11081

Blaszczak, J.R., J.M. Delesantro, Y. Zhong, D.L. Urban, and E.S. Bernhardt. 2019. Watershed urban development controls on urban streamwater chemistry variabilityBiogeochemistry 144: 61-84. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-019-00572-7

Brandt, J.E., M. Simonin, R.T. Di Giulio, and E.S. Bernhardt. 2019. Beyond selenium: Coal combustion residuals lead to multielement enrichment in receiving lake food webs. Environmental Science & Technology 53(8):4119-4127. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b00324

Brooks, A.C., M.R.V. Ross, F. Nippgen, B.L. McGlynn and E.S. Bernhardt. 2019Excess nitrate export in mountaintop removal coal mining watershed. JGR Biogeosciences 124(12):3867-3880. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JG005174

Chamberlin, C., E.S. Bernhardt, E. Rosi, J.B. Heffernan. 2019. Stoichiometry and daily rhythms: experimental evidence shows nutrient limitation decouples nitrogen uptake from photosynthesis. Ecology 100(10):e02822. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2822

D’Alpaos, A., S. Lanzoni, A. Rinaldo, and M. Marani. 2019. Salt-marsh ecomorphological dynamics and hydrodynamic circulation. Chapter 5 in Perillo, G.M.E. et al, (eds.), Coastal Wetlands: An Integrated and Ecosystem Approach, 2nd ed. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63893-9.00005-8

Helton, A.M., M. Ardón, and E.S. Bernhardt. 2019. Hydrologic context alters the greenhouse gas feedbacks to coastal wetland salinizationEcosystems 22:1108-1125 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-018-0325-2

Reinhold, A.M. G.C. Poole, C. Izurieta, A.M. Helton, and E.S. Bernhardt. 2019 Constraint-based simulation of multiple interactive elemental cycles in biogeochemical systems. Ecological Informatics 50: 102-121.

Tully, K., K. Gedan, R. Epanchin-Neill, A. Strong, E.S. Bernhardt,T. BenDor, M. Mitchell, J. Kominoski, T.E. Jordan, S.C. Neubauer, and N.B. Weston. 2019. The invisible flood: The complex, and costly consequences of saltwater intrusion. BioScience 69:368-378. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biz027

Ury, E.A., S.M. Anderson, R.K. Peet, E.S. Bernhardt, and J.P. Wright. 2019. Succession, regression and loss: does evidence of salt water exposure explain recent changes in the tree communities of North Carolina’s Coastal Plain? Annals of Botany 125(2):255-264. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcz039

Wen, Y., E.S. Bernhardt, W. Deng, W. Liu, J. Yan, E.M. Baruch, and C.M. Bergeman. 2019. Salt effects on carbon mineralization in southeastern coastal wetland soils of the United States. Geoderma 339: 31-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.12.035


Ardón, M., A.M. Helton and E.S. Bernhardt. 2018. Salinity effects on greenhouse gas emissions from wetland soils are contingent upon hydrologic setting: a microcosm experiment. Biogeochemistry 140: 217–232. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-018-0486-2.

Avellan, A., M. Simonin, E. McGivney, N. Bossa, E. Spielman-Sun, J. Rocca, E.S. Bernhardt, N. Geitner, J. Unrine, M. Wiesner, and G. Lowry. 2018. Gold nanoparticle biodissolution by a freshwater macrophyte and its associated microbiomeNature Nanotechnology  13 (11):1072-1077. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-018-0231-y

Baruch, E.M., K.A. Voss, J.R. Blaszczak, J. Delesantro, D.L. Urban, and E.S. Bernhardt. 2018Not all pavements lead to streams: variation in impervious surface connectivity affects urban stream ecosystems. Freshwater Science 37:  673-684. 10.1086/699014

Bernhardt, E.S., J.B. Heffernan, N.B. Grimm, E.H. Stanley, J.W. Harvey, M. Arroita, A.P. Appling, M.J. Cohen, W.H. McDowell, R.O. Hall, Jr., J.S. Read, B.J. Roberts, E.G. Stets, and C. Yackulic. 2018. The metabolic regimes of flowing watersLimnology and Oceanography 63:S99-S118. https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.10726

Bhattachan, A., R.E. Emanuel, M. Ardon, E.S. Bernhardt, S.M. Anderson, M.G. Stillwagon,  E.A. Ury, T.K. Bendor, and J.P. Wright. 2018. Evaluating the effects of land-use change and future climate change on vulnerability of coastal landscapes to saltwater intrusion. Elementa – Science of the Anthropocene 6(1):62.  https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.316

Blaszczak, J.R., M. Steele, B. Badgley, J.B. Heffernan, S. Hobbie, J. Morse, E. Rivers, S. Hall, C. Neill, D. Pataki, P. Groffman, and E.S. Bernhardt. 2018 Sediment Chemistry of Urban Stormwater Ponds and Controls on Denitrification. Ecosphere (6):e02318. ​https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.2318

Colman, B.P, L. Baker, R.S. King, C. Matson, J. Unrine, S. Marinakos, D. Gorka, E.S. Bernhardt. 2018. Dosing, not the dose: comparing chronic and pulsed silver nanoparticle exposures. Environmental Science & Technology 52:10048-10056. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b01700

Covino, T., E.S. Bernhardt, and J.B. Heffernan. 2018Measuring and interpreting relationships between nutrient supply, demand, and limitation. Freshwater Science 37: 448-455. 10.1086/699202.

Doyle, M.W. 2018. The Source: How Rivers Made America and How America Remade Its Rivers. W.W. Norton.

Hall, E.K., E.S. Bernhardt, R.L. Bier, M.A. Bradford, C.M. Boot, C.M., J.B. Cotner, P.A. del Giorgio, S.E. Evans, E.B. Graham, S.E. Jones, J.T. Lennon, K. Locey, D. Nemergut, B. Osborne, J.D. Rocca, J.S. Schimel, M.P. Waldrop, M.W. Wallenstein. 2018. Understanding How Microbiomes Influence the Systems they Inhabit. Nature Microbiology 3: 977–982. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0201-z

Hassett, B.A., E.B. Sudduth, K. Somers, D.L. Urban, C. Violin, S. Wang, J.P. Wright, and E.S. Bernhardt.2018Pulling apart the urbanization axis: patterns of physiochemical degradation and biological response across stream ecosystems. Freshwater Science 37: 653-672. 10.1086/699387

Hsu-Kim, H., C.S. Eckley, D. Acha, X. Feng, C.C. Gilmour, S. Jonsson, and C.P.J. Mitchell. 2018. Challenges and opportunities for managing aquatic mercury pollution in altered landscapes. Ambio 47(2):141-169. DOI:10.1007/s13280-017-1006-7

Marinos, R., J.L. Campbell, C.T. Driscoll, W.H. McDowell, E.J. Rosi, L.E. Rustad, and E.S. Bernhardt. 2018.  Give and Take: A Watershed Acid Rain Mitigation Experiment Increases Baseflow Nitrogen Retention but Increases Stormflow Nitrogen Export. Environmental Science and Technology 5213155-13165. 10.1021/acs.est.8b03553

Pitt, J.A., J.S.Kozal, N. Jayasundara, A. Massarsky, R. Trevisan, N. Geitner, M. Wiesner, E.D. Levin, and R.T. Di Giulio. 2018. Uptake, tissue distribution, and toxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquatic Toxicology 194:185-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.11.017

Rohr, J., E.S. Bernhardt, M. Cadotte and W. Clements. 2018The ecology and economics of restoration: When, what, where, and how to restore ecosystemsEcology and Society 23: 15. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-09876-230215

Simonin, M., B.P. Colman, W. Tang, J.D. Judy, S.M. Anderson, C.M. Bergemann, J.D. Rocca, J.M. Unrine, N. Cassar, and E.S. Bernhardt. Plant and microbial responses to repeated Cu(OH)2 nanopesticide exposures under different fertilization levels in an agro-ecosystem. Frontiers in Microbiology 9:1769.​ doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01769

Yousefi Lalimi, F., S. Silvestri, A. D’Alpaos, M. Roner, and M. Marani. 2018. The spatial variability of organic matter and decomposition processes at the marsh scale. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 123:3713-3727. https:// doi.org/10.1029/2017JG004211


Ardón, M., A.M. Helton, M.D. Scheuerell, and E.S. Bernhardt. 2017Fertilizer legacies meet saltwater incursion: challenges and constraints for coastal plain wetland restoration. Elementa – Science of the Anthropocene 5:41.

Arnold M.C., R.L. Bier, T.T. Lindberg, E.S. Bernhardt, R.T. Di Giulio. 2017. Biofilm mediated uptake of selenium in streams with mountaintop coal mine drainage. Limnologica 65:10-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.limno.2017.05.002

Bernhardt, E.S., E.J. Rosi and M.O. Gessner. 2017. Synthetic Chemicals as Agents of Global Change. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 15(2): 84–90. doi:10.1002/fee.1450

Bernhardt, E.S., J.R. Blaszczak,C.D. Ficken, M.L. Fork, K.E. Kaiser, and E.C. Seybold. 2017. Control Points in Ecosystems: Moving Beyond the Hot Spot Hot Moment Concept. Ecosystems 20: 665-682. DOI:10.1007/s10021-016-0103-y

Brandt, J. E.S. Bernhardt, G.S. Dwyer, and R.T. Di Giulio. 2017. Selenium Ecotoxicology in Freshwater Lakes Receiving Coal Combustion Residual Effluents: A North Carolina Example. Environmental Science & Technology 51: 2418–2426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b05353

Eagle, A.J., J.B. Hefffernan, L.P. Olander, K. Locklier andE.S. Bernhardt. 2017Fertilizer management and environmental factors drive N2O and NO3 losses in corn: A meta-analysis. Soil Science Society of America Journal 81(5):1191-1202 .doi:10.2136/sssaj2016.09.0281
Ensign, S.H., M.W. Doyle, and J.R. Gardner. 2017. New strategies for measuring rates of environmental processes in rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Freshwater Science 36(3):453-465. https://doi.org/10.1086/692998

Lee, M.R., E.S. Bernhardt,P. M. van Bodegom J.H.C. Cornelissen, J. Kattge, D.C. Laughlin, Ü. Niinemets, J. Peñuelas, P.B. Reich, B. Yguel, and J.P. Wright. 2017. Invasive species’ leaf traits and dissimilarity from natives shape their impact on nitrogen cycling: a meta-analysis. New Phytologist 213:128-139.

Nippgen, F., M.R.V. Ross, E.S. Bernhardt, and B.L. McGlynn. 2017. Creating a more perennial problem? Mountaintop removal mining enhances and sustains baseflows of Appalachian watersheds. Environmental Science and Technology 51: 8324–8334. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b02288
Voss, K.V. and E.S. Bernhardt. 2017. Effects of mountaintop removal coal mining on the diversity and secondary productivity of Appalachian rivers. Limnology and Oceanography 62: 1754-1770. doi: 10.1002/lno.10531Liu, J., R.-M. Han, H.-R. Su, Y.-P. Wu, L.-M. Zhang, C.J. Richardson, and G.-X. Wang. 2017. Effects of exotic Spartina alternifloria on vertical soil organic carbon distribution and storage amount in coastal salt marshes in Jiangsu, China. Ecological Engineering 106:132-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.05.041


Ardón, M., A.M. Helton, and E.S. Bernhardt. 2016Drought and saltwater incursion synergistically reduce dissolved organic carbon export from coastal freshwater wetlands. Biogeochemistry 127: 411–426. DOI 10.1007/s10533-016-0189-5

Baalousha, M., Y. Yang, M.E. Vance, B.P. Colman, S. McNeal, J. Xu, J. Blaszczak, M. Steele, E. Bernhardt, and  M. Hochella. 2016. Outdoor urban nanomaterials: The emergence of a new, integrated, and critical field of study. Science of The Total Environment 557:740-753. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.132

Di Giulio, R.T., E.S. Bernhardt, A. Vengosh, H. Hsu-Kim, and J.E. Brandt. 2016. Legacy Impacts of Coal Combustion Residues in Freshwater Ecosystems in North Carolina. Report No. 464. Water Resources Research Institute of The University of North Carolina. UNC-WRRI-464

Rosi-Marshall, E., E.S. Bernhardt, G.E. Likens, C.T. Driscoll and D.C Buso. 2016. Acid rain mitigation experiment shifts a forested watershed from a net sink to a net source of nitrogen. PNAS 113: 7580–7583​. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1607287113

Ross, M.R., B.L. McGlynn and E.S. Bernhardt. 2016Deep impact: Effects of mountaintop mining on surface topography, bedrock structure, and downstream waters. Environmental Science & Technology 50: 2064−2074. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b04532

Somers KAE.S. Bernhardt, B.L. McGlynn, and D.L. Urban.2016Downstream Dissipation and Management of Storm Flow Heat Pulses: A Case Study and its Implications. Journal of the American Water Resources Association JAWRA-14-0247-P. 0.1038/srep32520


Bier, R., E.S. Bernhardt, C. Boot, E. Graham, E. Hall, J. Lennon, D. Nemergut, B. Osborne, C. Ruiz Gonzalez, J. Schimel, M. Waldrop, M. Wallenstein. 2015.  Linking microbial community structure and microbial processes: an empirical and conceptual overview. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 91: fiv113. DOI:10.1093/femsec/fiv113
Doyle, M.W., J. Singh, R. Lave, M.M. Robertson. 2015. The morphology of streams restored for market and non-market purposes: Insights from a mixed natural-social science approach. Water Resources Research 51(7):5603-5622. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015WR017030

Doyle, M.W., and J. Von Windheim. 2015. Environmental management strategy: Four forces analysis. Environmental Management 55:6-18. DOI 10.1007/s00267-014-0389-5

Duncan, J.M., L.E. Band, P.M. Groffman and E.S. Bernhardt. 2015. Mechanisms driving the seasonality of catchment scale nitrate export: Evidence for riparian ecohydrologic controls. Water Resources Research 51: 3982-3997.

Fuller, M.R., M.W. Doyle, and David L. Strayer. 2015. Causes and consequences of habitat fragmentation in river networks. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1355:31-51. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12853

Gorka, D.E., JS. Osterberg, C.A. Gwin, B.P.Colman, J.N Meyer and E.S. Bernhardt. 2015. Reducing Environmental Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles through shape control. Environmental Science and Technology 49: 10093-10098. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b01711

Helton, A.M., M.S. Wright, E.S. Bernhardt, G.C. Poole, R.M. Cory and J.A. Stanford.  2015. Carbon supply and bioavailability within the hyporheic zone of an alluvial river floodplain.  JGR Biogeosciences 120: 693-706.

Ross. M.R., E.S. Bernhardt, M.W. Doyle and J.B. Heffernan. 2015Designer Ecosystems: Incorporating design approaches into ecosystem management. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 40: 419-443. 10.1146/annurev-environ-121012-100957

Yang, Y., B.P. Colman, E.S. Bernhardt and M.F. Hochella, Jr. 2015. The Importance of a Nanoscience Approach in the Understanding of Major Aqueous Contamination Scenarios: A Case Study from a Recent Coal Ash Spill. Environmental Science & Technology 49: 3375-3382.Flanagan, N.E., C.J. Richardson, and M. Ho. 2015 Connecting differential responses of native and invasive riparian plants to climate change and environmental alteration. Ecological Applications 25 (3):753-767. DOI 10.1890/14-0767.1. 


Appling, A.P., E.S. Bernhardtand J.A. Stanford. 2014. Floodplain biogeochemical mosaics: a three-dimensional view of soil C and N dynamics. JGR Biogeosciences 119: 1538-1553.

Carmichael, M,J., E.S. Bernhardt, S.L. Brauer and W.K. Smith. 2014. The role of vegetation in methane flux to the atmosphere: should vegetation be included as a distinct category in the global methane budget? Biogeochemistry 119:1-24.

Carniello, L, S. Silvestri, M. Marani, A. D’Alpaos, V. Volpe, and A. Defina. 2014. Sediment dynamics in shallow tidal basins: In situ observations, satellite retrievals, and numerical modeling in the Venice Lagoon. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 119(4):802-815.

Helton, A.M., E.S. Bernhardt and A. Fedders. 2014. Biogeochemical regime shifts in coastal landscapes: the contrasting effects of saltwater incursion and agricultural pollution on greenhouse gas emissions from a freshwater wetland. Biogeochemistry 120: 133-147.

Payn, R.A., A.M. Helton, G.C. Poole, C Izurieta, A.J. Burgin and E.S. Bernhardt. 2014.A generalized optimization model of microbially driven aquatic biogeochemistry based on thermodynamic, kinetic, and stoichiometric ecological theory. Ecological Modeling 294: 1-18.

Schoepfer, V., E.S. Bernhardt and A.J. Burgin. 2014. Iron Clad Wetlands: Soil iron-sulfur buffering determines coastal wetland response to salt water incursion. JGR Biogeosciences 199: 2209–2219. 

Wang, S., E.S. Bernhardt and J.P. Wright. 2014. Urban stream denitrifier communities are linked to lower functional resistance to multiple stressors associated with urbanization. Hydrobiologia 726: 13-23.


Marani, M., C. Da Lio, A. D’Alpaos. 2013. Vegetation engineers marsh morphology through multiple competing stable states. PNAS 110(9):3259-3263.


Doyle, M.W., and F.D. Shields. 2012. Compensatory mitigation for streams under the Clean Water Act: Reassessing science and redirecting policy. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 48(3):494-509. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00631.x

Morse, J., M. Ardon, and E.S. Bernhardt. 2012. Greenhouse gas fluxes in southeastern U.S. coastal plain wetlands under contrasting land uses. Ecological Applications 22 (1):264-280.


Cheng, Y., L. Yin, s. Lin, M. Wiesner, E.S. Bernhardt, and J. Liu. 2011. Toxicity reduction of polymer-stabilized silver nanoparticles by sunlight. Journal of Physical Chemistry 115:4425-4432.

Cohen, M.J., D.L. Watts, J.B. Heffernan, and T. Osborne. 2011. Reciprocal biotic control of hydrology, nutrient gradients and landform in the Greater Everglades. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 41: 395-429. doi:10.1080/10643389.201.

D’Alpaos, A., C. DaLio, and M. Marani. 2011. Biogemorphology of tidal landforms: physical and biological processes shaping the tidal landscape. Ecohydrology DOI:10.1002/eco279.

Doyle, M.W., and E.S. Bernhardt. 2011. What is a stream? Environmental Science & Technology 45:354-359.

Marani, M., A. D’Alpaos, S. Lanzone, and M. Santalucia. 2011 Understanding and predicting wave erosion of marsh edges. Geophysical Research Letters 38, L21401, doi:10.1029/2011GL48995.

Wang, S., E. Bernhardt, J.P.Wright, and M. Wallenstein. 2011.  Watershed urbanization alters the composition and function of stream bacterial communities. PLOSOne 6:e22972.

Warren, R.J., J.P Wright, and M.A. Bradford. 2011. The putative niche requirements and landscape dynamics of Microstegium vimineum: an invasive Asian grass. Biological Invasions.13:471-483.

Yin, L., B.P. Colman, B. Expinasse, J. Liu, Y. Cheng, and E.S. Bernhardt. 2011. More than the ions: the effects of silver nanoparticles on Lolium multiflorumEnvironmental Science & Technology 45:2360-2367.


Ardon, J.L., L. Morese, S. Montenari, M.W. Doyle, and E.S. Bernhardt. 2010. Phosphorus export from a restored wetland ecosystem in response to natural and experimental hydrologic fluctuations. IGR Biogeosciences 15:G04031.

Ardon, J.L., J.L. Morse, M.W. Doyle, and E.S. Bernhardt. 2010. The water quality consequences of restoring wetland hydrology to a large agricultural watershed in the southeastern coastal plain. Ecosystems 13:1060-1078.

Palmer, M.A., H.L. Menninger, and E.S. Bernhardt. 2010. River restoration, habitat heterogeneity and biodiversity: A failure of theory or practice? Freshwater Biology 55:205-222.